Cardiorespiratory fitness as a mediator of the influence of diet on obesity in children

N. Lahoz-García, A. García-Hermoso, M. Milla-Tobarra, A. Díez-Fernández, A. Soriano-Cano, V. Martínez-Vizcaíno

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  • 1 Citations

Abstract

The association between diet and obesity has been widely studied and it continues to be controversial; however, the extent to which cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) acts as a confounder or mediator in this relation has not been analyzed. The aim of this study is to examine if the relation between diet and obesity is mediated by CRF. In this cross-sectional study, fat mass (by electronic bioimpedance) was measured in 320 schoolchildren, aged 9–11 years. Diet was measured through two computerised 24-h dietary recalls and CRF was assessed by the 20-m shuttle run test. Simple mediation analyses were fitted. CRF acts as a partial mediator in the negative relationship between dietary factors (energy intake/weight, carbohydrate intake/weight, protein intake/weight, and fat intake/weight) and fat mass. The percentage of mediation ranged from 24.3 to 33.2%. Thus, Spanish schoolchildren with higher levels of energy and macronutrients intake had lower adiposity levels, especially when they had good levels of CRF. © 2018 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
LanguageEnglish
JournalNutrients
Volume10
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2018

Fingerprint

childhood obesity
Pediatric Obesity
Diet
school children
Weights and Measures
diet
Fats
Energy Intake
obesity
Obesity
carbohydrate intake
bioelectrical impedance
diet recall
adiposity
fat intake
lipids
protein intake
cross-sectional studies
Switzerland
electronics

Keywords

  • Children
  • CRF
  • Energy intake
  • Fat intake
  • Mediation
  • Obesity
  • Article
  • body composition
  • body mass
  • caloric intake
  • carbohydrate intake
  • cardiorespiratory fitness
  • child
  • controlled study
  • cross-sectional study
  • diet
  • dual energy X ray absorptiometry
  • fat intake
  • fat mass
  • female
  • food intake
  • human
  • impedance
  • macronutrient
  • male
  • obesity
  • oxygen consumption
  • protein intake
  • randomized controlled trial
  • school child
  • sexual maturation
  • waist circumference

Cite this

Lahoz-García, N., García-Hermoso, A., Milla-Tobarra, M., Díez-Fernández, A., Soriano-Cano, A., & Martínez-Vizcaíno, V. (2018). Cardiorespiratory fitness as a mediator of the influence of diet on obesity in children. Nutrients, 10(3). https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10030358

Cardiorespiratory fitness as a mediator of the influence of diet on obesity in children. / Lahoz-García, N.; García-Hermoso, A.; Milla-Tobarra, M.; Díez-Fernández, A.; Soriano-Cano, A.; Martínez-Vizcaíno, V.

In: Nutrients, Vol. 10, No. 3, 2018.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Lahoz-García, N, García-Hermoso, A, Milla-Tobarra, M, Díez-Fernández, A, Soriano-Cano, A & Martínez-Vizcaíno, V 2018, 'Cardiorespiratory fitness as a mediator of the influence of diet on obesity in children' Nutrients, vol. 10, no. 3. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10030358
Lahoz-García N, García-Hermoso A, Milla-Tobarra M, Díez-Fernández A, Soriano-Cano A, Martínez-Vizcaíno V. Cardiorespiratory fitness as a mediator of the influence of diet on obesity in children. Nutrients. 2018;10(3). https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10030358
Lahoz-García, N. ; García-Hermoso, A. ; Milla-Tobarra, M. ; Díez-Fernández, A. ; Soriano-Cano, A. ; Martínez-Vizcaíno, V. / Cardiorespiratory fitness as a mediator of the influence of diet on obesity in children. In: Nutrients. 2018 ; Vol. 10, No. 3.
@article{bac1c19f61ec4a1d8d7b7070c100650d,
title = "Cardiorespiratory fitness as a mediator of the influence of diet on obesity in children",
abstract = "The association between diet and obesity has been widely studied and it continues to be controversial; however, the extent to which cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) acts as a confounder or mediator in this relation has not been analyzed. The aim of this study is to examine if the relation between diet and obesity is mediated by CRF. In this cross-sectional study, fat mass (by electronic bioimpedance) was measured in 320 schoolchildren, aged 9–11 years. Diet was measured through two computerised 24-h dietary recalls and CRF was assessed by the 20-m shuttle run test. Simple mediation analyses were fitted. CRF acts as a partial mediator in the negative relationship between dietary factors (energy intake/weight, carbohydrate intake/weight, protein intake/weight, and fat intake/weight) and fat mass. The percentage of mediation ranged from 24.3 to 33.2{\%}. Thus, Spanish schoolchildren with higher levels of energy and macronutrients intake had lower adiposity levels, especially when they had good levels of CRF. {\circledC} 2018 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.",
keywords = "Children, CRF, Energy intake, Fat intake, Mediation, Obesity, Article, body composition, body mass, caloric intake, carbohydrate intake, cardiorespiratory fitness, child, controlled study, cross-sectional study, diet, dual energy X ray absorptiometry, fat intake, fat mass, female, food intake, human, impedance, macronutrient, male, obesity, oxygen consumption, protein intake, randomized controlled trial, school child, sexual maturation, waist circumference",
author = "N. Lahoz-Garc{\'i}a and A. Garc{\'i}a-Hermoso and M. Milla-Tobarra and A. D{\'i}ez-Fern{\'a}ndez and A. Soriano-Cano and V. Mart{\'i}nez-Vizca{\'i}no",
note = "Export Date: 23 May 2018 Correspondence Address: D{\'i}ez-Fern{\'a}ndez, A.; Centro de Estudios Socio-Sanitarios, Universidad de Castilla-La ManchaSpain; email: ana.diez@uclm.es Funding details: POII10-0208-5325, UCLM, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha Funding details: PII1I09-0259-9898, UCLM, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha Funding details: RD06/0018/0038, BCEOHRN, British Columbia Environmental and Occupational Health Research Network Funding details: FIS PI081297, MOH, Ministry of Health Funding text: Acknowledgments: Thanks to the schools, children, and families for their participation and interest in the study. Thanks to the groups of nurses, physicians, and doctors that made the collection of the data possible. This study was funded by the Ministry of Education and Science-Junta de Comunidades de Castilla-La Mancha (grand numbers PII1I09-0259-9898, POII10-0208-5325); Ministry of Health (grand number FIS PI081297); and the Research Network on Preventative Activities and Health Promotion (grand number RD06/0018/0038). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. References: Ogden, C.L., Carroll, M.D., Lawman, H.G., Fryar, C.D., Kruszon-Moran, D., Kit, B.K., Flegal, K.M., Trends in obesity prevalence among children and adolescents in the United States, 1988–1994 through 2013–2014 (2016) JAMA, 315, pp. 2292-2299; Wang, Y., Lobstein, T., Worldwide trends in childhood overweight and obesity (2006) Int. J. Pediatr. Obes., 1, pp. 11-25; Dehghan, M., Akhtar-Danesh, N., Merchant, A.T., Childhood obesity, prevalence and prevention (2005) Nutr. J., 4, p. 24; Mart{\'i}nez-Vizca{\'i}no, V., Solera Mart{\'i}nez, M., Notario Pacheco, B., S{\'a}nchez L{\'o}pez, M., Ca{\~n}ete Garc{\'i}a-Prieto, J., Torrijos Ni{\~n}o, C., Arias Palencia, N., Rodr{\'i}guez-Artalejo, F., Trends in excess of weight, underweight and adiposity among Spanish children from 2004 to 2010: The Cuenca study (2012) Public Health Nutr, 15, pp. 2170-2174; Brug, J., van Stralen, M.M., Te Velde, S.J., Chinapaw, M.J.M., de Bourdeaudhuij, I., Lien, N., Bere, E., Maes, L., Differences in weight status and energy-balance related behaviors among schoolchildren across Europe: The ENERGY-Project (2012) Plos ONE, 7; Rauner, A., Mess, F., Woll, A., The relationship between physical activity, physical fitness and overweight in adolescents: A systematic review of studies published in or after 2000 (2013) BMC Pediatr, 13, pp. 1-9; de Andrade Goncalves, E.C., Augusto Santos Silva, D., Gimenes Nunes, H.E., Prevalence and factors associated with low aerobic performance levels in adolescents: A systematic review (2015) Curr. Pediatr. Rev., 11, pp. 56-70; Garaulet, M., Mart{\'i}nez, A., Victoria, F., P{\'e}rez-Llamas, F., Ortega, R.M., Zamora, S., Differences in dietary intake and activity level between normal-weight and overweight or obese adolescents (2000) J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr., 30, pp. 253-258; Cuenca-Garc{\'i}a, M., Ortega, F.B., Ruiz, J.R., Labayen, I., Moreno, L.A., Patterson, E., Vicente-Rodr{\'i}guez, G., Polito, A., More physically active and leaner adolescents have higher energy intake (2014) J. Pediatr., 164, pp. 159-166; Stallmann-Jorgensen, I.S., Gutin, B., Hatfield-Laube, J.L., Humphries, M.C., Johnson, M.H., Barbeau, P., General and visceral adiposity in black and white adolescents and their relation with reported physical activity and diet (2007) Int. J. Obes., 31, pp. 622-629; Telford, R.D., Cunningham, R.B., Telford, R.M., Riley, M., Abhayaratna, W.P., Determinants of childhood adiposity: Evidence from the Australian LOOK Study (2012) Plos ONE, 7; Skinner, A.C., Steiner, M.J., Perrin, E.M., Self-reported energy intake by age in overweight and healthy-weight children in NHANES, 2001–2008 (2012) Pediatrics, 130, pp. e936-e942; McGloin, A.F., Livingstone, M.B., Greene, L.C., Webb, S.E., Gibson, J.M., Jebb, S.A., Cole, T.J., Prentice, A.M., Energy and fat intake in obese and lean children at varying risk of obesity (2002) Int. J. Obes. Relat. Metab. Disord., 26, pp. 200-207; Eisenmann, J.C., Aerobic fitness, fatness and the metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents (2007) Acta Paediatr, 96, pp. 1723-1729; Watts, K., Jones, T.W., Davis, E.A., Green, D., Exercise training in obese children and adolescents: Current concepts (2005) Sports Med, 35, pp. 375-392; Vasconcellos, F., Seabra, A., Katzmarzyk, P.T., Kraemer-Aguiar, L.G., Bouskela, E., Farinatti, P., Physical activity in overweight and obese adolescents: Systematic review of the effects on physical fitness components and cardiovascular risk factors (2014) Sports Med, 44, pp. 1139-1152; Mart{\'i}nez-Vizca{\'i}no, V., S{\'a}nchez-L{\'o}pez, M., Salcedo-Aguilar, F., Notario-Pacheco, B., Solera-Mart{\'i}nez, M., Moya-Mart{\'i}nez, P., Franquelo-Morales, P., Rodr{\'i}guez-Artalejo, F., Protocol of a randomized cluster trial to assess the effectiveness of the MOVI-2 program on overweight prevention in schoolchildren (2012) Revista Espa{\~n}ola De Cardiolog{\'i}a (English Version), 65, pp. 427-433; Pietrobelli, A., Fs, R., St-Onge, M.-P., Heymsfield, S., New bioimpedance analysis system: Improved phenotyping with whole-body analysis (2004) Eur. J. Clin. Nutr., 58, pp. 1479-1484; Lobstein, T., Baur, L., Uauy, R., Obesity in children and young people: A crisis in public health (2004) Obes. Rev., 5, pp. 4-85; Ortega, F.B., Sui, X., Lavie, C.J., Blair, S.N., Body mass index, the most widely used but also widely criticized index: Would a criterion standard measure of total body fat be a better predictor of cardiovascular disease mortality? (2016) Mayo Clin. Proc., 91, pp. 443-455; Cole, T.J., Lobstein, T., Extended international (IOTF) body mass index cut-offs for thinness, overweight and obesity (2012) Pediatr. Obes., 7, pp. 284-294; Vereecken, C., de Henauw, S., Maes, L., Moreno, L., Manios, Y., Phillipp, K., Plada, M., de Bourdeaudhuij, I., Reliability and validity of a healthy diet determinants questionnaire for adolescents (2009) Public Health Nutr, 12, pp. 1830-1838; Farran, A., Zamora, R., Cervera, P., (2004) Tablas De Composici{\'o}n De Alimentos Del CESNID, , 2nd ed.; McGraw-Hill/Interamericana: New York, NY, USA; L{\'e}ger, L.A., Mercier, D., Gadoury, C., Lambert, J., The multistage 20 metre shuttle run test for aerobic fitness (1988) J. Sports Sci., 6, pp. 93-101; Hayes, A., (2013) Introduction to Mediation, Moderation, and Conditional Process Analysis: A Regression-Based Approach, p. 507. , Little, T.D., Ed.; Guilford Press: New York, NY, USA; Preacher, K.J., Hayes, A.F., Asymptotic and resampling strategies for assessing and comparing indirect effects in multiple mediator models (2008) Behav. Res. Methods, 40, pp. 879-891; Sobel, M.E., Asymptotic confidence intervals for indirect effects in structural equation models (1982) Sociol. Methodol., 13, pp. 290-312; Moreno, L.A., Rodr{\'i}guez, G., Dietary risk factors for development of childhood obesity (2007) Curr. Opin. Clin. Nutr. Metab. Care, 10, pp. 336-341; Elliott, S.A., Truby, H., Lee, A., Harper, C., Abbott, R.A., Davies, P.S., Associations of body mass index and waist circumference with: Energy intake and percentage energy from macronutrients, in a cohort of Australian children (2011) Nutr. J., 10, p. 58; Cuenca-Garc{\'i}a, M., Ortega, F.B., Huybrechts, I., Ruiz, J.R., Gonz{\'a}lez-Gross, M., Ottevaere, C., Sj{\"o}str{\"o}m, M., Molnar, D., Cardiorespiratory fitness and dietary intake in European adolescents: The Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study (2012) Br. J. Nutr., 107, pp. 1850-1859; Haraldsdottir, J., Andersen, L.B., Dietary factors related to fitness in young men and women (1994) Prev. Med., 23, pp. 490-497; Arriscado, D., Muros, J.J., Zabala, M., Dalmau, J.M., Factors associated with low adherence to a Mediterranean diet in healthy children in northern Spain (2014) Appetite, 80, pp. 28-34; Zaqout, M., Vyncke, K., Moreno, L., Demiguel-Etayo, P., Lauria, F., Molnar, D., Lissner, L., Tornaritis, M., Determinant factors of physical fitness in European children (2016) Int. J. Public Health, 61, pp. 573-582; Nystr{\"o}m, C.D., Henriksson, P., Mart{\'i}nez-Vizca{\'i}no, V., Medrano, M., Cadenas-Sanchez, C., Arias-Palencia, N.M., L{\"o}f, M., S{\'a}nchez-L{\'o}pez, M., Does cardiorespiratory fitness attenuate the adverse effects of severe/morbid obesity on cardiometabolic risk and insulin resistance in children? A pooled analysis (2017) Diabetes Care, 40, pp. 1580-1587; Calcaterra, V., Larizza, D., Codrons, E., de Silvestri, A., Brambilla, P., Abela, S., Arpesella, M., Vandoni, M., Improved metabolic and cardiorespiratory fitness during a recreational training program in obese children (2013) J. Pediatr. Endocrinol. Metab., 26, pp. 271-276; Prado, D.M., Silva, A.G., Trombetta, I.C., Ribeiro, M.M., Nicolau, C.M., Guazzelli, I.C., Matos, L.N., Villares, S.M., Weight loss associated with exercise training restores ventilatory efficiency in obese children (2009) Int. J. Sports Med., 30, pp. 821-826; Strong, W.B., Malina, R.M., Blimkie, C.J.R., Daniels, S.R., Dishman, R.K., Gutin, B., Hergenroeder, A.C., Pivarnik, J.M., Evidence based physical activity for school-age youth (2005) J. Pediatr, 146, pp. 732-737; Gutin, B., The role of nutrient partitioning and stem cell differentiation in pediatric obesity: A new theory (2011) Int. J. Pediatr. Obes., 6, pp. 7-12",
year = "2018",
doi = "10.3390/nu10030358",
language = "English",
volume = "10",
journal = "Nutrients",
issn = "2072-6643",
publisher = "MDPI AG",
number = "3",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Cardiorespiratory fitness as a mediator of the influence of diet on obesity in children

AU - Lahoz-García, N.

AU - García-Hermoso, A.

AU - Milla-Tobarra, M.

AU - Díez-Fernández, A.

AU - Soriano-Cano, A.

AU - Martínez-Vizcaíno, V.

N1 - Export Date: 23 May 2018 Correspondence Address: Díez-Fernández, A.; Centro de Estudios Socio-Sanitarios, Universidad de Castilla-La ManchaSpain; email: ana.diez@uclm.es Funding details: POII10-0208-5325, UCLM, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha Funding details: PII1I09-0259-9898, UCLM, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha Funding details: RD06/0018/0038, BCEOHRN, British Columbia Environmental and Occupational Health Research Network Funding details: FIS PI081297, MOH, Ministry of Health Funding text: Acknowledgments: Thanks to the schools, children, and families for their participation and interest in the study. Thanks to the groups of nurses, physicians, and doctors that made the collection of the data possible. This study was funded by the Ministry of Education and Science-Junta de Comunidades de Castilla-La Mancha (grand numbers PII1I09-0259-9898, POII10-0208-5325); Ministry of Health (grand number FIS PI081297); and the Research Network on Preventative Activities and Health Promotion (grand number RD06/0018/0038). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. References: Ogden, C.L., Carroll, M.D., Lawman, H.G., Fryar, C.D., Kruszon-Moran, D., Kit, B.K., Flegal, K.M., Trends in obesity prevalence among children and adolescents in the United States, 1988–1994 through 2013–2014 (2016) JAMA, 315, pp. 2292-2299; Wang, Y., Lobstein, T., Worldwide trends in childhood overweight and obesity (2006) Int. J. Pediatr. Obes., 1, pp. 11-25; Dehghan, M., Akhtar-Danesh, N., Merchant, A.T., Childhood obesity, prevalence and prevention (2005) Nutr. J., 4, p. 24; Martínez-Vizcaíno, V., Solera Martínez, M., Notario Pacheco, B., Sánchez López, M., Cañete García-Prieto, J., Torrijos Niño, C., Arias Palencia, N., Rodríguez-Artalejo, F., Trends in excess of weight, underweight and adiposity among Spanish children from 2004 to 2010: The Cuenca study (2012) Public Health Nutr, 15, pp. 2170-2174; Brug, J., van Stralen, M.M., Te Velde, S.J., Chinapaw, M.J.M., de Bourdeaudhuij, I., Lien, N., Bere, E., Maes, L., Differences in weight status and energy-balance related behaviors among schoolchildren across Europe: The ENERGY-Project (2012) Plos ONE, 7; Rauner, A., Mess, F., Woll, A., The relationship between physical activity, physical fitness and overweight in adolescents: A systematic review of studies published in or after 2000 (2013) BMC Pediatr, 13, pp. 1-9; de Andrade Goncalves, E.C., Augusto Santos Silva, D., Gimenes Nunes, H.E., Prevalence and factors associated with low aerobic performance levels in adolescents: A systematic review (2015) Curr. Pediatr. Rev., 11, pp. 56-70; Garaulet, M., Martínez, A., Victoria, F., Pérez-Llamas, F., Ortega, R.M., Zamora, S., Differences in dietary intake and activity level between normal-weight and overweight or obese adolescents (2000) J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr., 30, pp. 253-258; Cuenca-García, M., Ortega, F.B., Ruiz, J.R., Labayen, I., Moreno, L.A., Patterson, E., Vicente-Rodríguez, G., Polito, A., More physically active and leaner adolescents have higher energy intake (2014) J. Pediatr., 164, pp. 159-166; Stallmann-Jorgensen, I.S., Gutin, B., Hatfield-Laube, J.L., Humphries, M.C., Johnson, M.H., Barbeau, P., General and visceral adiposity in black and white adolescents and their relation with reported physical activity and diet (2007) Int. J. Obes., 31, pp. 622-629; Telford, R.D., Cunningham, R.B., Telford, R.M., Riley, M., Abhayaratna, W.P., Determinants of childhood adiposity: Evidence from the Australian LOOK Study (2012) Plos ONE, 7; Skinner, A.C., Steiner, M.J., Perrin, E.M., Self-reported energy intake by age in overweight and healthy-weight children in NHANES, 2001–2008 (2012) Pediatrics, 130, pp. e936-e942; McGloin, A.F., Livingstone, M.B., Greene, L.C., Webb, S.E., Gibson, J.M., Jebb, S.A., Cole, T.J., Prentice, A.M., Energy and fat intake in obese and lean children at varying risk of obesity (2002) Int. J. Obes. Relat. Metab. Disord., 26, pp. 200-207; Eisenmann, J.C., Aerobic fitness, fatness and the metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents (2007) Acta Paediatr, 96, pp. 1723-1729; Watts, K., Jones, T.W., Davis, E.A., Green, D., Exercise training in obese children and adolescents: Current concepts (2005) Sports Med, 35, pp. 375-392; Vasconcellos, F., Seabra, A., Katzmarzyk, P.T., Kraemer-Aguiar, L.G., Bouskela, E., Farinatti, P., Physical activity in overweight and obese adolescents: Systematic review of the effects on physical fitness components and cardiovascular risk factors (2014) Sports Med, 44, pp. 1139-1152; Martínez-Vizcaíno, V., Sánchez-López, M., Salcedo-Aguilar, F., Notario-Pacheco, B., Solera-Martínez, M., Moya-Martínez, P., Franquelo-Morales, P., Rodríguez-Artalejo, F., Protocol of a randomized cluster trial to assess the effectiveness of the MOVI-2 program on overweight prevention in schoolchildren (2012) Revista Española De Cardiología (English Version), 65, pp. 427-433; Pietrobelli, A., Fs, R., St-Onge, M.-P., Heymsfield, S., New bioimpedance analysis system: Improved phenotyping with whole-body analysis (2004) Eur. J. Clin. Nutr., 58, pp. 1479-1484; Lobstein, T., Baur, L., Uauy, R., Obesity in children and young people: A crisis in public health (2004) Obes. Rev., 5, pp. 4-85; Ortega, F.B., Sui, X., Lavie, C.J., Blair, S.N., Body mass index, the most widely used but also widely criticized index: Would a criterion standard measure of total body fat be a better predictor of cardiovascular disease mortality? (2016) Mayo Clin. Proc., 91, pp. 443-455; Cole, T.J., Lobstein, T., Extended international (IOTF) body mass index cut-offs for thinness, overweight and obesity (2012) Pediatr. Obes., 7, pp. 284-294; Vereecken, C., de Henauw, S., Maes, L., Moreno, L., Manios, Y., Phillipp, K., Plada, M., de Bourdeaudhuij, I., Reliability and validity of a healthy diet determinants questionnaire for adolescents (2009) Public Health Nutr, 12, pp. 1830-1838; Farran, A., Zamora, R., Cervera, P., (2004) Tablas De Composición De Alimentos Del CESNID, , 2nd ed.; McGraw-Hill/Interamericana: New York, NY, USA; Léger, L.A., Mercier, D., Gadoury, C., Lambert, J., The multistage 20 metre shuttle run test for aerobic fitness (1988) J. Sports Sci., 6, pp. 93-101; Hayes, A., (2013) Introduction to Mediation, Moderation, and Conditional Process Analysis: A Regression-Based Approach, p. 507. , Little, T.D., Ed.; Guilford Press: New York, NY, USA; Preacher, K.J., Hayes, A.F., Asymptotic and resampling strategies for assessing and comparing indirect effects in multiple mediator models (2008) Behav. Res. Methods, 40, pp. 879-891; Sobel, M.E., Asymptotic confidence intervals for indirect effects in structural equation models (1982) Sociol. Methodol., 13, pp. 290-312; Moreno, L.A., Rodríguez, G., Dietary risk factors for development of childhood obesity (2007) Curr. Opin. Clin. Nutr. Metab. Care, 10, pp. 336-341; Elliott, S.A., Truby, H., Lee, A., Harper, C., Abbott, R.A., Davies, P.S., Associations of body mass index and waist circumference with: Energy intake and percentage energy from macronutrients, in a cohort of Australian children (2011) Nutr. J., 10, p. 58; Cuenca-García, M., Ortega, F.B., Huybrechts, I., Ruiz, J.R., González-Gross, M., Ottevaere, C., Sjöström, M., Molnar, D., Cardiorespiratory fitness and dietary intake in European adolescents: The Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study (2012) Br. J. Nutr., 107, pp. 1850-1859; Haraldsdottir, J., Andersen, L.B., Dietary factors related to fitness in young men and women (1994) Prev. Med., 23, pp. 490-497; Arriscado, D., Muros, J.J., Zabala, M., Dalmau, J.M., Factors associated with low adherence to a Mediterranean diet in healthy children in northern Spain (2014) Appetite, 80, pp. 28-34; Zaqout, M., Vyncke, K., Moreno, L., Demiguel-Etayo, P., Lauria, F., Molnar, D., Lissner, L., Tornaritis, M., Determinant factors of physical fitness in European children (2016) Int. J. Public Health, 61, pp. 573-582; Nyström, C.D., Henriksson, P., Martínez-Vizcaíno, V., Medrano, M., Cadenas-Sanchez, C., Arias-Palencia, N.M., Löf, M., Sánchez-López, M., Does cardiorespiratory fitness attenuate the adverse effects of severe/morbid obesity on cardiometabolic risk and insulin resistance in children? A pooled analysis (2017) Diabetes Care, 40, pp. 1580-1587; Calcaterra, V., Larizza, D., Codrons, E., de Silvestri, A., Brambilla, P., Abela, S., Arpesella, M., Vandoni, M., Improved metabolic and cardiorespiratory fitness during a recreational training program in obese children (2013) J. Pediatr. Endocrinol. Metab., 26, pp. 271-276; Prado, D.M., Silva, A.G., Trombetta, I.C., Ribeiro, M.M., Nicolau, C.M., Guazzelli, I.C., Matos, L.N., Villares, S.M., Weight loss associated with exercise training restores ventilatory efficiency in obese children (2009) Int. J. Sports Med., 30, pp. 821-826; Strong, W.B., Malina, R.M., Blimkie, C.J.R., Daniels, S.R., Dishman, R.K., Gutin, B., Hergenroeder, A.C., Pivarnik, J.M., Evidence based physical activity for school-age youth (2005) J. Pediatr, 146, pp. 732-737; Gutin, B., The role of nutrient partitioning and stem cell differentiation in pediatric obesity: A new theory (2011) Int. J. Pediatr. Obes., 6, pp. 7-12

PY - 2018

Y1 - 2018

N2 - The association between diet and obesity has been widely studied and it continues to be controversial; however, the extent to which cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) acts as a confounder or mediator in this relation has not been analyzed. The aim of this study is to examine if the relation between diet and obesity is mediated by CRF. In this cross-sectional study, fat mass (by electronic bioimpedance) was measured in 320 schoolchildren, aged 9–11 years. Diet was measured through two computerised 24-h dietary recalls and CRF was assessed by the 20-m shuttle run test. Simple mediation analyses were fitted. CRF acts as a partial mediator in the negative relationship between dietary factors (energy intake/weight, carbohydrate intake/weight, protein intake/weight, and fat intake/weight) and fat mass. The percentage of mediation ranged from 24.3 to 33.2%. Thus, Spanish schoolchildren with higher levels of energy and macronutrients intake had lower adiposity levels, especially when they had good levels of CRF. © 2018 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

AB - The association between diet and obesity has been widely studied and it continues to be controversial; however, the extent to which cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) acts as a confounder or mediator in this relation has not been analyzed. The aim of this study is to examine if the relation between diet and obesity is mediated by CRF. In this cross-sectional study, fat mass (by electronic bioimpedance) was measured in 320 schoolchildren, aged 9–11 years. Diet was measured through two computerised 24-h dietary recalls and CRF was assessed by the 20-m shuttle run test. Simple mediation analyses were fitted. CRF acts as a partial mediator in the negative relationship between dietary factors (energy intake/weight, carbohydrate intake/weight, protein intake/weight, and fat intake/weight) and fat mass. The percentage of mediation ranged from 24.3 to 33.2%. Thus, Spanish schoolchildren with higher levels of energy and macronutrients intake had lower adiposity levels, especially when they had good levels of CRF. © 2018 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

KW - Children

KW - CRF

KW - Energy intake

KW - Fat intake

KW - Mediation

KW - Obesity

KW - Article

KW - body composition

KW - body mass

KW - caloric intake

KW - carbohydrate intake

KW - cardiorespiratory fitness

KW - child

KW - controlled study

KW - cross-sectional study

KW - diet

KW - dual energy X ray absorptiometry

KW - fat intake

KW - fat mass

KW - female

KW - food intake

KW - human

KW - impedance

KW - macronutrient

KW - male

KW - obesity

KW - oxygen consumption

KW - protein intake

KW - randomized controlled trial

KW - school child

KW - sexual maturation

KW - waist circumference

U2 - 10.3390/nu10030358

DO - 10.3390/nu10030358

M3 - Article

VL - 10

JO - Nutrients

T2 - Nutrients

JF - Nutrients

SN - 2072-6643

IS - 3

ER -